Penduline Tit

Remiz pendulinus Linnaeus, 1758

Aegithalus pendulinus: Reiser, 1894: 58.

Order Passeriformes

Family Remizidae

Conservation status: in Bulgaria: Vulnerable VU [B1+B2+C], BDA-III; International: BeC-III.

General distribution. A Palearctic species found in the Southern Palearctic between Southern Finland, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, Iran and China. In the northern parts of the area migratory, and in the southern resident [1].

Distribution and abundance in Bulgaria. A breeding summer visitor and passage migrant. In the past it was often found on all the Danube islands [2]. At present it breeds along the valley of the Danube and its tributaries. It also incubates along some reservoirs near the city of Pleven [3]. In Srebarna Lake for the 2001 2004 period from 12 to 20 pairs were registered [4]. It also breeds in lakes along the Black Sea coast: Durankulak, Atanasovsko Ezero, Vaya, Mandrensko Ezero [5; 6]. It is also found along the valleys of the Maritsa and the Tundzha [7], along the rivers in some lower mountains like Strandzha [8] and Lozenska [9], and also in the Eastern Rhodopes [10]. It has also been observed along the rivers Struma and Strumeshnitsa [11], the swamps along the valley of the rivers Iskar [12; 13] and Bebresh [14]. It is most numerous along the valley of the Danube. The total numbers in the country are between 400 and 800 pairs [7]. It leaves the country at the end of September and the beginning of October [13].

Habitats. Rivers and different water basins with standing waters, overgrown along the shores with willow, alder, poplar, elm-tree.

Biology. The nests have the shape of a sack with an opening at the upper end. They are situated on the end branches of trees, often hanging over the water. Building the nest starts at the beginning of May. It lays between 6-8 (5-10) eggs. Incubation is carried out only by the female and continues for about 14 days. It breeds 2 to 5 young ones that start flying in about 20 days [15].

Similar species. None.

Negative factors. Destruction and degradation of its habitats clearing the shore vegetation.

Conservation measures taken. Protected according to the Biological Diversity Act. Some of its habitats are included in Protected Territories along the valley of the Danube and the Black Sea coast.

Conservation measures needed. Carrying out targeted studies on the species. Study of the negative factors bearing down on the numbers of the breeding populations and of the changes in their numbers and areas.

References. 1. Hagemeijer, Blair, 1997; 2. Reiser, 1894; 3. Shurulinkov et al., 2005; 4. Kambourova, 2004; 5. Iankov, 1996; 6. Michev et al., 2004; 7. Iankov, in press; 8. Milchev, 1998; 9. Simeonov, Dimitrov, 1994; 10. Iankov, 1991; 11. Prostov, 1963; 12. Simeonov, Sofroniev, 1967; 13. Simeonow, Iwanow, 1971; 14. Simeonov et al. 1984; 15. Cramp, Perrins, 1993.

Author: Nevena Kambourova

Penduline Tit (distribution map)

Penduline Tit (drawing)