Lopinga achine (Scopoli, 1763)
Order Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera)
Family Brush-footed butterflies (Nymphalidae)
Conservation status: in Bulgaria: Extinct EX.
General distribution. From Central and Eastern Europe through Russia to Japan. Extinct in a large part of the territory of Europe.
Distribution and abundance in Bulgaria. Reported at the beginning of the 20th century for Samuil Village , and later for the site Trapotansko, Vratsa District  and Razgrad . It has not been found in Bulgaria since 1906. There are no data about the abundance of the populations during the time when the species was found in Bulgaria.
Habitats. Specific data about Bulgaria are missing. In other places in Europe it inhabits the edges of wet meadows in the immediate vicinity of mixed coniferous and deciduous forests or clearings in the valleys, where the hazel (Corylus) is present.
Biology. Poorly known. One generation yearly. The butterfly flies in June and July, seldom in August. The females hatch about two weeks later than the males. The adult prefers shadowy places, but it has also been observed perching on the leaves of the hazel, where sun spots form. Sometimes over 25 specimens are collected on a single tree. It feeds in the morning, mainly on the nectar of cranesbills (Geranium). Mating takes place at noon, usually at a height of several metres in the densest shadow of the leaves. Host plants of the larva are Brachypodium sylvaticum and B. pinnatum. It overwinters as a larva.
Negative factors. Loss and degradation of the major habitats as a result of infrastructure development, industry, etc. The fondness of the species of specific habitats also plays a negative role in its survival.
Conservation measures taken. None.
References. 1. Markowitsch, 1909; 2. Abadjiev, 1995; 3. Abadjiev, 2001.
Author: Stanislav Abadjiev