Glareola nordmanni Nordmann, 1841
Glareola melanoptera Nordm.: Hristovich, 1890: 211.
Conservation status: in Bulgaria: Critically endangered CR [B1(a)+c(iv)+2(a)+c(iv)]+D, BDA-II, III; International: IUCN-NT, BeC-II, BoC-II, ECS-Spec 1, BD-I.
General distribution. Probably with a Mongolian type of distribution. It breeds in the Ukraine, Southern Russia and Kazakhstan, in Europe there are 2 500 – 5 100 pairs.
Distribution and abundance in Bulgaria. A breeding summer visitor and passage migrant. In the past near the town of Svishtov (1 pair, 08.06.1890) . On 30 May 1964, 2 pairs were observed near the village of Dolno Ezerovo, Burgas region . Occupied territories on 18-19 May 1978 in Atanasovsko Ezero lake . On 27 August – 27 September 1889, 50 individuals between the rivers Maritsa and Topolnitsa . A total of 80 birds flew to the south near the town of Ahtopol on 02 August 1972 , 1 individual on 28.08.1972 near Durankulak Lake , on 25 August 1978, on 28 August 1978, 1 individual in Atanasovsko Ezero lake . Since 1985, only along the Black Sea coast . In Atanasovsko Ezero lake on 02 July 1987, 50 individuals, on 19-21 May 1989, 30 individuals, on 11 May 1990, 3 pairs, on 11 June 1999, 6 individuals (1 pair), after 1999 every year in May and June, from 1 pair to 10 individuals, on 09 June 2002, a young with down with a pair . One individual in June 1992 in Pomoriysko Lake , 1 pair on 13 May 2004 in Shablenska Tuzla [8, 9].
Habitats. Dry pastures or arable land (maize fields) to shore lagoons.
Biology. Poorly known. It breeds in mixed colonies with Glareola pratincola. Occupation of breeding sectors in the second half of May . A recently hatched young was observed in the first ten days of June .
Similar species. The Collared Pratincole (Glareola pratincola).
Negative factors. Unknown. Probably the changes in the mode of managing agricultural lands with breeding places, infrastructure and tourist development.
Conservation measures taken. Protected according to the Biological Diversity Act. An international plan for its preservation including Bulgaria. Established numbers and area of the populations . Yearly monitoring of the habitats . Some of the habitats proposed by the Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds for inclusion in the Natura 2000 network [10,11]. Proposal for the protection of Shablenska Tuzla.
Conservation measures needed. Preparation of a national plan for its conservation, guaranteeing a suitable management of the lands around Atanasovsko Ezero lake and Shablenska Tuzla. Studying the current state and the threats, working out management plans for the protected areas within breeding places, preparation of a complete system of monitoring, including the general state of the breeding places and the effect of the nature conservation measures taken. Declaration of Shablenska Tuzla as Protected Area. Expansion to the north east of the reserve Atanasovsko Ezero lake, and involvement of the pasture and the neighbouring fields with an appropriate mode of management; guarding and restriction of the access of predators.
References. 1. Reiser, 1894); 2. Paspaleva-Antonova, 1965; 3. Nankinov et al., 1997; 4. Hristovich, 1890; 5. Nankinov, 1989; 6. Dontschev, 1975; 7. Nankinov, 2002; 8. Ornithological Database, BSPB; 9. Iankov, in press; 10. Kostadinova, 1997; 11. Kostadinova, Gramatikov, in press.
Author: Petar Iankov