Verpa conica (O.F. Müll. : Fr.) Sw.
Conservation status. Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(ii,iii)].
Morphology and biology. Cap conical, attached only to the upper narrow point of the stipe, 1–3 × 1–2 cm. Upper surface almost smooth or slightly wrinkled, olive to dark brown. Stipe cylindrical, 4–6 × 0.5–1.5 cm, with whitish surface, covered by dark grains scattered in irregular horizontal strips; hollow. Spores ellipsoid, 20–24 × 12–14 µm, smooth. IV–V.
Habitats and populations. On the ground in deciduous, mixed, and coniferous forests.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Balkan Range (Western – Buhovo village), Sofia Region (Sofia, Romcha), Vitosha Region (Vitosha Mt – Vladaiska River).
General distribution. Europe, Asia, North America.
Threats. Habitat loss/degradation caused by stock breeding, wood plantations, logging, urbanization, development of tourism/recreation infrastructure, soil pollution.
Conservation measures taken. Included in the Red List of Fungi in Bulgaria. Several localities are within the borders of Vitosha Nature Park. Some localities are in sites of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.
Conservation measures needed. Study of the population numbers and range; better understanding of the species biology and ecology; conservation of the habitats; regular monitoring.
References. Hinkova 1955a, 1961; Hinkova & Drumeva 1978; Dimitrova 2002b.
Authors: Roumyana D. Petrova & Cvetomir M. Denchev