Silene euxina Rupr.
Caryophyllaceae – Pink family
Conservation status. Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)]. BDA.
Morphology and biology. Annual or biennial, herbaceous plant. Stem single, rarely numerous, up to 50 cm high, erect, with short, wound hairs. Leaves opposite, densely pubescent, lower broadly lanceolate to lanceolate, middle lanceolate, up to 8 cm long and up to 1 cm wide. Inflorescence terminal dichasium. Calyx 5-merous, 10–12 mm long, with wound hairs, tubular-cylindrical, with 10 parallel veins. Petals wide, bifid, ca 1.5 cm long. Fruit cylindrical, three edged capsule. Fl. VI–X, fr. VI–XI. Reproduction by seeds.
Habitats and populations. Prefers sandy and gravel beaches, rarely on shore rocks and dry grasslands, most often on sandy soils. The number of plants vary from single individuals up to compact populations of good numbers of plants.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Black Sea coast, northwards reaching Pasha Dere locality (district Varna), up to 20 m alt.
General distribution. The Black Sea coast and the shores of the Aegean Sea.
Threats. The limited distribution of the species and the specificity of the preferred habitat, the intensive building at the sea shores, trampling and ploughing of the sands.
Conservation measures taken. Protected species according to the national Biodiversity Act. Some of the populations are included in protected areas (Irakli and Silistar Protected Sites and Pyasachni Dyuni Perla Nature Monument) and in sites of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.
Conservation measures needed. Sustainable management and conservation of the habitats and monitoring of the populations.
References. Meshinev et al. 1994; Jordanov & Panov 1966; Petrova 1984.
Authors: Boris Assyov, Cvetomir M. Denchev