Serratula bulgarica Acht. et Stoj.
Asteraceae – Daisy family
Conservation status. Critically Endangered [CR A1c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv)+2ab(i,iv)]. IUCN(R), BDA.
Morphology and biology. Perennial, with a well developed, branched root. Stem 40–100 cm high, erect, pubescent. Basal leaves ovate-lanceolate, irregularly dentate or entire. Capitula single, with purple to purple violet florets. Outer involucral bracts elliptical, with uneven, scarious appendages; inner bracts with entire, scarious margin. Achenes with pappus of dentate hairs. Fl. V–VII, fr. VI–VIII. Pollinated by insects. Reproduction by seeds.
Habitats and populations. Occurs in herbaceous plant communities, from wet meadows (near Targoviste) to steppes dominated by Stipa tirsa (near Svistov). Populations are strongly fragmented and with low number of individuals.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Northeast Bulgaria (Popovo and Targoviste towns, Nevsha village), Danubian Plain (Hadzhidimitrovo village – Smradlikata locality near Svistov); up to 500 m alt.
General distribution. NE Bulgaria and E Romania. Balkan near-endemic.
Threats. Ploughing, fragmentation and deterioration of the structure of herbaceous communities as a result of trampling, grazing, etc. The species has a naturally small area of distribution and small populations.
Conservation measures taken. The species is protected by the national Biodiversity Act. Included in 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants with a category “rare”. The locality in the Danubian Plain is in a site of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria. An Action plan for conservation of the species is in a process of elaboration.
Conservation measures needed. Study of the numerical strength and size of the population, biology and ecology of the species, threats. Collection of seeds for the National Seed Genebank in Sadovo. Proclamation of the localities near Targoviste and Hadzhidimitrovo village as protected areas.
References. Achtaroff & Stojanoff 1932; Bondev 1984; Tzonev 2004; Petrova 2010.
Author: Rossen Tzonev