Microstoma protractum (Fr.) Kanouse
Sarcoscypha hiemalis Bernst.
Conservation status. Endangered [EN B2ab(ii,iv)].
Morphology and biology. Fruit-bodies (apothecia) clustered, arising from joint pseudorhiza, at first closed, globose, later opening and than pear-like, cub-like or campanulate, 0.5–1.5 cm in diameter, dentate in upper part with bright red hymenium, fleshy, outside downy, covered with white hairs and with a slender, hairy, whitish stalk, up to 2 cm long and 1.5 mm wide. Spores ellipsoid or oblong-ellipsoid, (35)40–45 × 12.5–15 µm, unicellular, smooth, thick walled, with two to four oil drops, hyaline. X–IV.
Habitats and populations. On soil or on fallen deciduous twigs.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Vitosha Region (Vitosha Mt – near the village of Vitoshko and along Vladaiska River).
General distribution. Europe, Asia.
Threats. Habitat changes as result of wood plantations, wood extraction, tourism development; change in native species dynamics (directly impacting habitat).
Conservation measures taken. Included in the Red List of Fungi in Bulgaria. The localities are situated on the territory of the Vitosha Nature Park and in a site of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.
Conservation measures needed. Research into the species biology and ecology; inclusion in the National biodiversity monitoring system; preservation of the localities of the species.
References. Hinkova 1954, 1955a; Aleksandrov 1970; Gyosheva et al. 2006.
Author: Evtimiya Dimitrova