Elaphomyces granulatus Fr.
Conservation status. Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(ii,iv)].
Morphology and biology. Fruit-bodies globose to ellipsoid, up to 4 cm in diameter with thick peridium, composed of two layers: outer (rind) is thin-walled, pale brown, divided into sections, covered with small, slightly pyramidal warts; inner layer is homogeneous, white, pale to saturated brown, rare black; gleba at first white, cotton-like, later gray to brown, dusty-black at maturity. Spores globose to pear-like, 24–32 µm in diameter, black-brown, covered by short irregular warts. I–XII.
Habitats and populations. Mainly on acid soils, in coniferous rare in deciduous forests.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Black Sea Coast (Southern – Arkutino Strict Nature Reserve), Northeast Bulgaria (Razgrad hills), Pirin Mts (Southern – above the town of Gotse Delchev).
General distribution. Europe.
Threats. Habitat changes as result of tourism, fires, atmospheric and land pollution due to agricultural and industrial activities; limited species distribution.
Conservation measures taken. Included in the Red List of Fungi in Bulgaria. Two localities are situated in the territory of the Pirin National Park and Arkutino Strict Nature Reserve.
Conservation measures needed. Research into the species biology and ecology; inclusion in the National biodiversity monitoring system; preservation of the localities of the species.
References. Kuthan & Kotlaba 1981; Gyosheva 2000; Gyosheva et al. 2006; Denchev et al. 2007; Dimitrova & Gyosheva 2008.
Author: Evtimiya Dimitrova