Campanula transsilvanica Andrae
Campanulaceae – Bellflower family
Conservation status. Endangered [EN B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii)]. IUCN(R), BDA.
Morphology and biology. Biennial to perennial herb. Stems up to 30(40) cm tall. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to broadly lanceolate; lamina 4–7 cm long, serrate; winged-petiolate. Inflorescence compound, of many densely arranged, bracteate capitula of flowers. Calyx teeth lanceolate. Corolla tubular-infundibuliform, violet, 15–25 mm long. Capsule many seeded. Fl. VII–VIII, fr. VIII–IX. Insect pollinated. Reproduction by seeds.
Habitats and populations. Grows in open, rocky grasslands, by forests and shrubs, in the coniferous forests and high mountainous belts, often in communities of Pinus heldreichii, P. mugo, Vaccinium myrtillus, etc., on limestone or siliceous bedrock.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Vitosha region, Pirin Mts (northern), Rila Mts; from 1800 up to 2500 m alt. Reported for western and central Balkan Range (Assyov & Petrova 2006) but needs confirmation.
General distribution. Bulgaria, Romania (eastern and southern Carpathians).
Threats. Grazing, trampling by tourists and domestic animals, setting fires for wood-clearing to establish pastures have negative impact on the species and cause reduction of the population size. Natural disasters (land slides and rain floods) are potential threats for the species habitats.
Conservation measures taken. Protected species according to the national Biodiversity Act. Listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants 1997 as rare species. Some localities are situated in protected territories (Rila National Park, including Central Rila Strict Nature Reserve, Vitosha Nature Park, Bayuvi Dupki – Dzhindzhiritsa Strict Nature Reserve) and sites of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.
Conservation measures needed. Restriction of human activities within the species localities; deposition of seeds to the National Seed Genebank in Bulgaria; elaboration of technologies for ex situ cultivation of the species.
References. Anchev 1984, 1992a; Walter & Gillet 1998; Cheshmedzhiev 2003; Assyov & Petrova 2006.
Authors: Mincho Anchev & Valentina Goranova