Campanula thyrsoides L.
Campanulaceae – Bellflower family
Conservation status. Endangered [EN B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii)].
Morphology and biology. Biennial to perennial herb. Stem up to 50 cm tall. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 6–10 cm long, entire, narrowed at base to a winged petiole. Inflorescence compact, thyrsiform, consisting of numerous groups of sessile flowers, each group bracteate. Calyx-teeth oblong-lanceolate, acute. Corolla 17–25 mm long, tubular-campanulate, yellowish white. Capsule many seeded. Fl. VII–VIII, fr.VIII–IX. Insect pollinated. Reproduces by seeds.
Habitats and populations. Grows in open stony and rocky grasslands in the high mountainous belt. Populations are small and fragmented.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Balkan Range (central – between Triglav and Ispolin peaks); at 2000–2300 m alt.
General distribution. C Europe (Austria, Germany, France, Switzerland) and SE Europe (Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Serbia). The occurrences of Campanula thyrsoides in Bulgaria represent the eastern boundary of the species distribution area in Europe.
Threats. Tourism, trampling by humans and animals and the very limited distribution in Bulgaria are the main threats for the species. Habitat changes caused by natural disasters may also occur.
Conservation measures taken. The localities of the species are within Central Balkan National Park and in a site of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.
Conservation measures needed. Population monitoring aiming at the optimization of the protection regime of the species. Deposition of seeds to the National Seed Genebank in Bulgaria and research for ex situ propagation and cultivation of the species.
References. Stojanov & Stefanov 1948; Ančev 1992a; Cheshmedzhiev 2003.
Authors: Valentina Goranova, Mincho Anchev