Amanita ovoidea (Bull. : Fr.) Link
Conservation status. Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(i,iii,iv)].
Morphology and biology. Fruit-body initially covered by a general membranous veil. Cap 10–20(30) cm in diameter, at first oval or semi-globose, then umbonate to almost flat, white, creamy to ochraceous; with scattered whitish warts, soon falling off. Gills free, white to yellowish. Stipe 10–15 × 3–5(7) cm, almost cylindrical, bulb-like at base, white, embraced by a whitish or yellowish shredded volva; at the top with a white, membranous, wide ring, soon falling off. Flesh white. Spores ellipsoid, 10–12 × 6.5–7.5 μm, smooth, colourless. VII–IX.
Habitats and populations. On limy and sandy soils in warm deciduous (mainly oak) forests.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Balkan Range (Eastern – near Vlas), Rhodopi Mts (Eastern – near Vodentsi and Silen villages).
General distribution. Europe, mainly the Mediterranean Area, Asia (Japan, Kazakhstan), North America, N Africa, Australia.
Threats. Habitat loss/degradation caused by selective logging, development of tourism/recreation infrastructure, fires; acid rains, soil pollution.
Conservation measures taken. Included in the Red List of Fungi in Bulgaria. Some localities are in sites of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.
Conservation measures needed. Study of the population numbers and range; better understanding of the species biology and ecology; conservation of the habitats; regular monitoring; introduction of permitted amounts for gathering but only in definite territories and in a definite time periods.
References. Hinkova et al. 1979; Kuthan & Kotlaba 1989; Gyosheva et al. 2000, 2006.
Author: Melania Gyosheva