Alchemilla jumrukczalica Pawł.
Rosaceae – Rose family
Conservation status. Critically Endangered [CR B2ab(ii,iv,v); C2a(i)]. IUCN(R), BDA. Bulgarian endemic.
Morphology and biology. Herbaceous, rhizomatous perennial. Stems 10–25 cm, in the lower part with dense patent hairs, glabrous or with sparse patent hairs above. Basal leaves reniform, 7(9)-lobed, with a varying indumentum above, with dense patent hairs beneath; petioles 3–8 cm; cauline leaves few, small, with the same indumentum as basal ones. Inflorescence lax; glomeruli dense. Flowers 3.5–4.5 mm in diameter; greenish yellow. Sepals broadly oblong-triangular; epicalyx segments ovate-oblong, entire or 2–3 of them with 1–2 teeth. Fruit a single achene. Fl. VII–VIII, fr. VIII–IX. Reproduction by seeds and vegetative means. Requires high soil and air humidity.
Habitats and populations. Occurs in moist, rocky places and by streams at the timberline. Populations are small and fragmented. Plants usually grow individually.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Balkan Range (Central – between Levski chalet and Botev peak, along the streams below Ambaritsa peak, Rai and Tuzha chalets, Smesite locality, by the trail from Stupalata locality to Kademliya peak); 1600–1800 m alt.
General distribution. Bulgaria.
Threats. Limited distribution; low population density; trampling and specimens destruction by tourists; climate changes such as warming and aridisation.
Conservation measures taken. Protected species according to the national Biodiversity Act. Included in 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants with a category “rare”. The populations are within Central Balkan National Park, including in Dzhendema Strict Nature Reserve. The localities are in sites of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria. The species is preserved in the ex situ collection of the IBER, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
Conservation measures needed. Monitoring of the population state and reproductive potential aimed at optimization of the species protection regime; if necessary, re-introduction of the species to its natural habitats from the ex situ collection.
References. Pawłowski 1952, 1953; Walters & Pawłowski 1968; Assenov 1973, 1984; Vitkova 1996; Walter & Gillet 1998; Kurtto et al. 2007.
Author: Antonina Vitkova