Alchemilla fissa Günther & Schummel
Rosaceae – Rose family
Conservation status. Endangered [EN B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(ii,iv); C2a(i)].
Morphology and biology. Herbaceous, rhizomatous perennial. Stems 5–30 cm, ascending or procumbent, slender, delicate, glabrous. Basal leaves reniform to suborbicular, lobed to 1/2–2/3, lobes 5−7, glabrous; petioles 2–10 cm long; cauline leaves few, small, 3–5-lobed, glabrous. Inflorescence many-flowered, spreading; glomeruli dense. Flowers 4–5.5 mm in diameter, yellowish green. Sepals ovate-lanceolate; epicalyx segments narrowly lanceolate. Fruit a single achene. Fl. VII–VIII, fr. VIII–IX. Insect pollination. Reproduction by seeds, and to a less extent, by vegetative means.
Habitats and populations. Grows in moist, rocky places, rock crevices, on shallow soil in the subalpine vegetation belt. Takes part in hasmophytic communities together with Alopecurus riloensis, Achillea clusiana, Geum bulgaricum, Cardamine resedifolia, Ligusticum mutellina, Rhodiola rosea, Artemisia eriantha, etc. Individuals are scattered or form small groups. Two subpopulations are known, both of small sizes, confined to rocky screes and terraces.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Rila Mts (in the region of Malyovitsa peak and Sedemte Rilski Ezera; 1900–2200 m alt.
General distribution. Europe (Balkan Peninsula, Pyrenees, the Alps and Sudetes).
Threats. Limited distribution; low population density and reproductive potential; adherence to a specific, relatively rare habitat; climate changes such as warming and aridisation.
Conservation measures taken. The localities are within Rila National Park and in a site of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.
Conservation measures needed. Monitoring of the populations aimed at the optimization of their protection regime; ex situ propagation and maintenance of an ex situ collection of the species, and if necessary, re-introduction of the species to its natural habitats.
References. Walters & Pawłowski 1968; Assenov 1973, 1984; Kurtto et al. 2007.
Author: Antonina Vitkova